Eleven Principles Of The Naqshbandi Sufi Order
[I have copied this page from the Haqqani Foundation website because of the importance of these principles to the Naqshbandi order and because the background of the page on their site made it difficult for me to read. It appears largely to be taken verbatim from Trimingham, The Sufi Orders of Islam (pp. 203-204). The source for Triminghams's translation was Taj al-Din ibn Mahdi Zaman al-Rumi, Risala fi sunan al-Ta'ifa al-Naqshbandiya, which is a manuscript held in the Cambridge library and listed in the Add. (Additional or Added ?) manuscripts #1073, pp. 4-5. There are a number of problems in Trimingham's translation. When I have the time, I will attempt to correct the translations, basing myself on sources that seem to have the much of the same material as Taj al-Din's Risalah. I will follow my corrections by "--ed," indicating that I, the editor, am responsible for the corrections.
The following eleven principles show the exercise-aims of the Tariqat Naqshbandiya. The first eight were formulated by Khwaja Abd al-Khaliq al-Ghujdawani, and the last three were added by Khwaja Bahauddin Naqshband.
Yad KardRemembrance, or making mention. Both oral and mental. Be always repeating the Dhikr imparted to you so that you may attain the beatific vision. Khwaja Bahauddin Naqshband said, "The aim in Dhikr is that the heart be always aware of al-Haqq [The Truth, a Beautiful Name of Allah], for its practice banished inattention."
Baz GashtRestraint. The person saying the Dhikr, when engaging in the heart-repetition of the blessed phrase [shahada] should intersperse it with such phrases as "my God you are my Goal and your satisfaction is my aim", to help to keep one's thoughts form straying. Other masters say that it means 'return' or 'repent', i.e, return to al-Haqq by way of contrition [inkisar].
Nigah DashtWatchfulness. Over wandering, passing thoughts when repeating the blessed phrase.
Yad DashtRecollection. Concentration upon the Divine Presence in a condition of Dhawq [zoq], foretaste, intuitive anticipation or perceptiveness, not using external aids.
Hosh dar damAwareness while breathing. The technique of breath control. Said Khwaja Bahauddin Naqshband, "The external basis of this tariqa is the breath." One must not exhale in forgetfulness or inhale in forgetfulness.
Safar dar watanJourneying in one's homeland. This is an interior journey, the movement from blameworthy to praiseworthy qualities. Others refer to it as the vision or revelation of the hidden side of the Shahada.
Nazar bar qadamWatching one's steps. Let the salik [pilgrim] ever be watchful during his journey, whatever the type of country through which he is passing that he does not let his gaze be distracted from the goal of his journey.
Khalwat dar anjumanSolitude in a crowd. The journey of the salik, though outwardly it is in the world, inwardly it is with God. Leaders of the Tariqa have said,"In this tariqa association is in the crowd [assembly] and disassociation in the khalwa." A common weekly practice was to perform the dhikr in the assembly.
Wuquf-e zamaniTemporal pause [Awareness related to time--ed.]. Keeping account of how one is spending one's time, whether rightly and if so give thanks, or wrongly- and if so asking for forgiveness, according to the ranking of the deeds, for "verily the good deeds of the righteous are the iniquities of those who are near [to God]."
Wuquf-e adadiNumerical pause [Awareness related to number--ed.]. Checking that the heart dhikr [said in the heart, silently] has been repeated the requisite number of times, taking into account one's wandering thoughts. The Rashahat mentions that Khwaja Bahauddin Naqshband considered numerical awareness the first stage of esoteric knowlege.
Wuquf-e qalbiHeart pause [Awareness related to the heart--ed.]. Forming a mental picture of one's heart with the name of Allah engraved thereon, to emphasize that the heart has no consciousness or goal other than God. This is the meaning of the word "Naqshband".
(Text copied from the Haqqani Foundation Web Page.)