Islamic Philosophy and Scientific
NOTE: To view the full Encyclopaedia Britannica articles noted on this page one must be
a paid subscriber or access the articles through a library that has a subscription.
Table of Contents
Islam and Science
and Philsophers (link fixed 18 August 2005) A variety of introductory articles on Muslim
scientists and philosophers before the European Renaissance, written by
Dr. A. Zahoor.
the Islamic Intellectual Heritage be Recovered by
Professor William C.
Chittick, published in the Iqbal Review, Oct. 1998.
Islamic Philosophy Website This
website has a large number of high quality online books and articles dealing with the
major Islamic philosophers and their ideas. Unquestionably the best source for Islamic
philosophy on the web. (Offline October 20, 2003; back online Nov., 2003).
A History of Muslim
Philosophy by M. M. Sharif. Though published between 1963 and 1966,
many of the articles
in this encyclopedic work still provide useful introductions to the major Islamic
philosophical and theology schools as well as their prominent figures.
Dictionary of Islamic
(Offline October 20, 2003; back online Nov. 2003.)
Islamic Philosophy by the
well-respected scholar of Islamic philosophy,
Prof. Oliver Leaman This article surveys briefly all developments in Islamic
philosophy and is hyperlinked to separate articles on each of the major figures and
topics. The catch is that the links only work if one is reading the text at a library
that has a paid subscription to the Routledge Online Encyclopedia of Islamic
Philosophy. Of course, individuals may purchase subscriptions.
Major Points in
Islamic Philosophy, written by an American non-Muslim teacher of
Philosophy, Wallace Provost, this article deals with a few of the
issues that Muslim philosophers were concerned with. (Fixed Nov. 25, 2010) It is a part of a larger
textbook that is downloadable for free (although you will need to register) God, Science, and Reason.
by Kiki Kennedy-Day, deals primarily with al-Kindi's metaphysics and ethics.
(d. 873 CE)
was an early Muslim mathematician and philosopher.
scope of philosophical interest in Islam and the Teachings of al-Kindi (d. 870),
from the Encyclopaedia Britannica, discusses the philosophical milieu out of which
Islamic philosophy arose and then outlines the main philosophical positions held by
Ya'qub ibn Is'haq al-Kindi. The Teachings
of Abu Bakr ar-Razi (d. 10th century AD), from the Encyclopaedia Britannica,
outlines the main points of al-Razi's philosophy, a philosophy that in part was
influenced by the Mu'tazilites. Razi, in general, was critical of religion and
rejected prophecy. The Teachings of
al-Farabi, an article from the Encyclopaedia Britannica, covers a number of
significant aspects of the philosophy of Abu al-Nasr al-Farabi (d. circa 950 AD), among
them being the following: political philosophy and the study of religion, his
interpretation of Plato and Aristotle, the analogical relationship between religion and
philosophy, and the impact of al-Farabi on Isma'ili theology.
Avicenna (980-1037) (as he is
known in the West, while his actual name was Abu 'Ali Sina) is the title of a
substantial entry in the Catholic Encyclopedia devoted to one of the greatest Muslim
(Avicenna) a substantial article by Salim Kemal, discussing among other things Ibn
Sina's life and his
philosophy of reason and reality, epistemology, metaphysics, existence of God, the
soul, and eschatological reward and punishment.
Al-Ghazali, Causality, and
Knowledge by Peter Adamson, of the University of Notre Dame. This paper is among
the papers included in the Paideia Project On-Line, which archives the papers presented
at the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy, held in Boston, Mass., U.S.A., August,
al-Ghazali (d. 1111 CE) is a scholarly article by Massimo Campanini from the
History of Islamic Philosophy. Al-Ghazali was deeply erudite philosopher,
theologian, scholar of law, and a mystic (Sufi). (Link fixed, April 18, 2005.)
Rushd's On the Harmony of Religion and Philosophy (link fixed 18 August 2005) This is a
translation of part of Ibn Rushd's (Averroes)(1126-1198 CE) Kitab fasl
al-maqal. In it the
following problems are discussed: the creation of the universe, the advent
of prophets, fate and predestination, divine justice and injustice, and
the Day of Judgment.
Rushd, known in the West as Averroes. This article
about him was taken from the Encyclopaedia Britannica. (Offline as of
April 17, 2000)
article on Ibn Rushd in the Catholic Encyclopedia.
Ibn Rushd, by
Dr. A. Zahoor.
Islam and Modern Science is the title of a lecture delivered at MIT by
the eminent Muslim scholar, Seyyed Hossein Nasr.
Links for Islamic Law and Ethics (link fixed 18 August 2005), paying particular
attention to medical ethics. Annotated at the library of the School of Nursing at the
Higher Colleges of Technology (HCT) in the
United Arab Emirates.
Edited by Shahid Athar, M.D., a Muslim physician and scholar, this is a
collection of highly informative essays by a variety of physicians and
scholars. Of particular interest to scholars are the chapters from the
9th century CE. text Adab al-Tabib, by
al-Ruhawi, translated by Martin Levey in the journal Transactions of
the American Philosophical Society,
Vol. 57, Part 3, 1967, as "Medical Ethics of Medieval Islam with Special
Reference to Al-Ruhawi's Practical Ethics of the Physician." One chapter
from Adab al-Tabib is Statement on the
Policies by which the Physician Must Conduct Himself in His Daily
Life; additional chapters include topics such as edible matter,
beverages, sleeping and being awake, psychic
events; and habits. (Back on-line 4/27/98)
Another chapter in the book Islamic Medicine is Islamic
Ethics. This chapter, written by Shahid Athar (the editor of the
volume), comprises discussions of the Islamic perspective on various
contemporary medical issues such as 'the right to live and die'
(including euthanasia), 'organ transplants,' 'abortion,' 'bio-technical
reproduction' (surrogate motherhood), and 'AIDS.' (Back on-line
Sex Education: An Islamic
Perspective is an on-line book edited by the Muslim physician, Shahid
Athar. Most of the articles in the book were written by Dr. Athar. Among
its contents are the following articles: "Sex Education, Teenage
Pregnancy, Sex In Islam And Marriage,"
"Role Of The Muslim Physician In Sex Education," "Sex Roles In Muslim
Families In The U.S," "Gender Relations Attitude - Survey Of Muslim Youth
And Parents," "Sex Education Questions From Muslim Youth," "Candid Talk,"
and "A Case Against Pornography."
Annotated Links on Islam and Medicine (link fixed 18 August 2005) compiled at the Higher
Colleges of Technology health sciences and nursing library, The United Arab Emirates.