Islamic Philosophy and Scientific Thought

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Table of Contents

General Essays
Islamic Philosophy
Islam and Science

General Essays

  • Islamic Scientists and Philsophers (link fixed 18 August 2005) A variety of introductory articles on Muslim scientists and philosophers before the European Renaissance, written by Dr. A. Zahoor.

    Islamic Philosophy

  • Can the Islamic Intellectual Heritage be Recovered by Professor William C. Chittick, published in the Iqbal Review, Oct. 1998.
  • Islamic Philosophy Website This website has a large number of high quality online books and articles dealing with the major Islamic philosophers and their ideas. Unquestionably the best source for Islamic philosophy on the web. (Offline October 20, 2003; back online Nov., 2003).
  • A History of Muslim Philosophy by M. M. Sharif. Though published between 1963 and 1966, many of the articles in this encyclopedic work still provide useful introductions to the major Islamic philosophical and theology schools as well as their prominent figures.

  • Dictionary of Islamic Philosophical Terms (Offline October 20, 2003; back online Nov. 2003.)

  • Islamic Philosophy by the well-respected scholar of Islamic philosophy, Prof. Oliver Leaman This article surveys briefly all developments in Islamic philosophy and is hyperlinked to separate articles on each of the major figures and topics. The catch is that the links only work if one is reading the text at a library or institution that has a paid subscription to the Routledge Online Encyclopedia of Islamic Philosophy. Of course, individuals may purchase subscriptions.

  • Major Points in Islamic Philosophy, written by an American non-Muslim teacher of Philosophy, Wallace Provost, this article deals with a few of the issues that Muslim philosophers were concerned with. (Fixed Nov. 25, 2010) It is a part of a larger textbook that is downloadable for free (although you will need to register) God, Science, and Reason.

  • Al-Kindi by Kiki Kennedy-Day, deals primarily with al-Kindi's metaphysics and ethics.
  • Al-Kindi (d. 873 CE) was an early Muslim mathematician and philosopher.

  • Background and scope of philosophical interest in Islam and the Teachings of al-Kindi (d. 870), from the Encyclopaedia Britannica, discusses the philosophical milieu out of which Islamic philosophy arose and then outlines the main philosophical positions held by Ya'qub ibn Is'haq al-Kindi.

  • The Teachings of Abu Bakr ar-Razi (d. 10th century AD), from the Encyclopaedia Britannica, outlines the main points of al-Razi's philosophy, a philosophy that in part was influenced by the Mu'tazilites. Razi, in general, was critical of religion and rejected prophecy.

  • The Teachings of al-Farabi, an article from the Encyclopaedia Britannica, covers a number of significant aspects of the philosophy of Abu al-Nasr al-Farabi (d. circa 950 AD), among them being the following: political philosophy and the study of religion, his interpretation of Plato and Aristotle, the analogical relationship between religion and philosophy, and the impact of al-Farabi on Isma'ili theology.

  • Avicenna (980-1037) (as he is known in the West, while his actual name was Abu 'Ali Sina) is the title of a substantial entry in the Catholic Encyclopedia devoted to one of the greatest Muslim philosophers.

  • Ibn Sina (Avicenna) a substantial article by Salim Kemal, discussing among other things Ibn Sina's life and his philosophy of reason and reality, epistemology, metaphysics, existence of God, the soul, and eschatological reward and punishment.

  • Al-Ghazali, Causality, and Knowledge by Peter Adamson, of the University of Notre Dame. This paper is among the papers included in the Paideia Project On-Line, which archives the papers presented at the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy, held in Boston, Mass., U.S.A., August, 1998.

  • Abu Hamid al-Ghazali (d. 1111 CE) is a scholarly article by Massimo Campanini from the History of Islamic Philosophy. Al-Ghazali was deeply erudite philosopher, theologian, scholar of law, and a mystic (Sufi). (Link fixed, April 18, 2005.)

  • Ibn Rushd's On the Harmony of Religion and Philosophy (link fixed 18 August 2005) This is a translation of part of Ibn Rushd's (Averroes)(1126-1198 CE) Kitab fasl al-maqal. In it the following problems are discussed: the creation of the universe, the advent of prophets, fate and predestination, divine justice and injustice, and the Day of Judgment.

  • Ibn Rushd, known in the West as Averroes. This article about him was taken from the Encyclopaedia Britannica. (Offline as of April 17, 2000)

  • Averroes the article on Ibn Rushd in the Catholic Encyclopedia.

  • Ibn Rushd, by Dr. A. Zahoor.

    Islam and Science

  • Islam and Modern Science is the title of a lecture delivered at MIT by the eminent Muslim scholar, Seyyed Hossein Nasr.

  • Comprehensive Links for Islamic Law and Ethics (link fixed 18 August 2005), paying particular attention to medical ethics. Annotated at the library of the School of Nursing at the Higher Colleges of Technology (HCT) in the United Arab Emirates.

  • Islamic Medicine Edited by Shahid Athar, M.D., a Muslim physician and scholar, this is a collection of highly informative essays by a variety of physicians and scholars. Of particular interest to scholars are the chapters from the 9th century CE. text Adab al-Tabib, by al-Ruhawi, translated by Martin Levey in the journal Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 57, Part 3, 1967, as "Medical Ethics of Medieval Islam with Special Reference to Al-Ruhawi's Practical Ethics of the Physician." One chapter from Adab al-Tabib is Statement on the Procedures and Policies by which the Physician Must Conduct Himself in His Daily Life; additional chapters include topics such as edible matter, beverages, sleeping and being awake, psychic events; and habits. (Back on-line 4/27/98) Another chapter in the book Islamic Medicine is Islamic Medical Ethics. This chapter, written by Shahid Athar (the editor of the volume), comprises discussions of the Islamic perspective on various contemporary medical issues such as 'the right to live and die' (including euthanasia), 'organ transplants,' 'abortion,' 'bio-technical reproduction' (surrogate motherhood), and 'AIDS.' (Back on-line 4/27/98)

  • Sex Education: An Islamic Perspective is an on-line book edited by the Muslim physician, Shahid Athar. Most of the articles in the book were written by Dr. Athar. Among its contents are the following articles: "Sex Education, Teenage Pregnancy, Sex In Islam And Marriage," "Role Of The Muslim Physician In Sex Education," "Sex Roles In Muslim Families In The U.S," "Gender Relations Attitude - Survey Of Muslim Youth And Parents," "Sex Education Questions From Muslim Youth," "Candid Talk," and "A Case Against Pornography."

  • Extensive Annotated Links on Islam and Medicine (link fixed 18 August 2005) compiled at the Higher Colleges of Technology health sciences and nursing library, The United Arab Emirates.

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